Urban live a thread for the health of the dog’s nose?

Urban trails are always a challenge for the dog’s nose. Unfortunately it seems also to be a challenge for the health of the dog’s nose to live with the air pollution in a city as a recent study reveals:

„An examination of dogs from southwest Mexico City and Tlaxcala found that older dogs (age > 3 months) from Mexico City showed gross discoloration of the olfactory mucosa compared to that of younger dogs in Mexico City and dogs of all ages in Tlaxcala (Calderón-Garcidueñas et al. 2002), consistent with gross examination of the nasal mucosa of children living in this part of Mexico City (Calderón-Garcidueñas et al. 2001a). Histologically, the older dogs from Mexico City also showed degradation and disorganization of the olfactory epithelium, and consequently a thinner and disoriented epithelium. There were also histologic findings of metaplasia, a lack of nerve bundles and Bowman’s glands, and evidence of inflammation. However, the olfactory bulbs themselves showed largely unremarkable differences between high-exposure and control dogs. Most of these histological findings are consistent with nasal biopsies taken from children living in this highly polluted region of Mexico City (Calderón-Garcidueñas et al. 2001b), suggesting the ability of airborne pollutants to damage directly the olfactory epithelium. Another study of dogs living in southwest Mexico City showed that, in comparison to controls from Tlaxcala, they had elevated levels of inflammatory and cell stress markers in olfactory bulb tissue and evidence of increased DNA damage (Calderón-Garcidueñas et al. 2003a), consistent with results shown in human pathophysiology studies. Mice chronically exposed to O3 experienced atrophy of their olfactory epithelium, in addition to various other morphologic abnormalities to their nasal cavities (Herbert et al. 1996). “

Souce: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5089874/#__sec16title

(Foto: Nina A.J. - Outside the RSPCA.CC BY-ND 2.0)